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Analysis and insight into trends
in money and banking, and their impact
on the world's leading economies


% annual growth rate:

M3Nominal GDP
Six years to 201613.73%9.59%

Sources: M3 from OECD database and nominal GDP from IMF database, as at March 2017.

The medium-term relationship between money and nominal GDP growth in Russia, 1996-2016

Five-year moving averages of annual % changes, with 1998 being the start of the first five-year period

Comment on monetary trends in Russia

The 1990s saw the collapse of the Soviet Union and the political and economic transformation of the Russian Federation. The lifting of price controls in the early 1990s, the lack of stable market institutions, along with quite rapid and sustained monetary growth ended up in escalating inflation and eventually hyperinflation in 1992 (with an annual rate of inflation higher than 2,500%). Since the mid 1990s a more sustainable fiscal policy and tighter monetary policy helped to cut down the rate of growth of money (31.51% on average, see Table above) and thus inflation (20.69% on average). The central bank has contributed to the stabilisation of the purchasing power of the ruble by gradually moving from a managed floating exchange rate to a freely floating ruble in 2014 and an inflation targeting monetary policy; by which the central bank commits to achieving a 4% annual rate of inflation by 2017. Monetary policy has become more compatible with lower inflation since 2011 and inflation has returned to more moderate figures. However, the effects of lower oil prices and political tensions with the international community led to the imposition of economic sanctions to Russia in 2014 and triggered fears over the stability of the economy and the financial system. As a result the ruble depreciated quite significantly in 2014 and 2015, which had a major impact on domestic prices (with inflation spiking again to double-digit figures in 2015). The central bank has managed to keep money growth in check and bring inflation back on track in recent months, in line with its 4% inflation target.

Banking and finance in the early years of the United States of America were chaotic. Two of the founding fathers - Thomas Jefferson and James Madison - were hostile to banking, since the issue of paper money led to inflation and default. According to Jefferson,

"...banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies"